A: Only in narrow instances. Fair use is a much misunderstood part of U.S. copyright law. It is often difficult to predict whether a use will be deemed by a court to be fair use, and fair use generally is not a substitute for copyright compliance.
A: In the United States, you need permission to use the image or likeness of individuals for commercial purposes. The issue will be whether the publication is for commercial use, for example a book that will go on sale. If yes, then you will need the permission of the individuals photographed. In addition, you should not use a photo of someone when the photo (1) appears to disclose embarrassing private facts about the person, (2) creates a false impression to the public about the person, or (3) appears to have been taken when the subject of the photo had a reasonable expectation of privacy.
A: No. The image may still be subject to copyright, although it was found online through a Google search. You should find the original source to determine the terms of usage and see if permission is needed. Alternatively, you can use the IMF Flickr site or contact CSF Creative as they can help you find appropriate images through one of their stock photo services.
A: It depends on how many users and what kinds of uses are authorized by the publication’s license. If it is a single-user license, generally, you may not duplicate the publication or share with anyone else; and even multi-user or institutional licenses may prohibit you from forwarding copies. However, some licenses permit limited sharing. Review the license terms to find out whether any sharing is permitted, or request help from the Library or firstname.lastname@example.org.
A: You must adhere to the copyright laws of the country where you are using the material, which would be the country of the regional office, and the laws of the countries where the material will be published. In addition, we recommend that you also comply with U.S. copyright laws.
A: Yes, you need permission for both the book chapter and online images. Even if you are copying only a few pages, you need permission from the publisher. For online images, this may involve permission from both the copyright owner (photographer, photo agency, or other) and the website where you find the image..
A: Yes. The chapter was based on an IMF Working Paper and incorporates information gathered during the course of your work. The chapter is therefore considered a work made-for-hire, with copyright held by the IMF, and will need to be cleared for external publication by COM. Also, COM will process any copyright forms that the publisher forwards to you.